AT THE POINT
Location: The point is located on private property about 1.0 km south of the Balonne Highway about 50 km west of Bollon. The photos were taken alongside the Balonne Highway at its nearest point to the confluence point. The actual point is yet to be visited.
The point just falls within Balonne Shire with the border with Paroo Shire only one kilometre further west.
The Landscape: Flat country with an elevation of around 150 to 200 m ASL. Roadside vegetation is low woodland with mulga (Acacia aneura), cypress (Calytris sp.) and various eucalypts dominant with a sparse ground cover of Spinifex, tussock grasses and herbs. The soils are sandy. Vegetation at the actual point is probably pasture.
The site was fenced between stock route and private property, in the catchment of Culgoa River.
Point information and photos: Jane Terrell-Payne, Les Payne 2008 and Col Grant, Sept 2008 (Author's email: email@example.com).
IN THE DEGREE SQUARE
The Country: The country throughout the square is relatively flat. Elevations range from around 200 m in the north to 150 m in the south. The geology is predominantly late Cainozoic outwash sand, soils and gravels. It falls within the Condamine-Culgoa part of the Murray-Darling Basin.
Much of the native vegetation across the square has been removed and replaced by pasture for sheep and more recently cattle grazing. What native vegetation that remains is mostly mulga and cypress woodland with taller eucalypts including Coolibah (Eucalyptus coolabah). Riparian stands of River Red Gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) are found along the drainage channels.
Road trains move stock along the state's roads and highways. Cars need to be careful when passing - if the road is not wide enough, it is best to pull over onto the side of the road and drive slowly (as seen here). On dirt and gravel roads a car should stop to allow large vehicles to pass. This reduces the potential for windscreen damage and having vision obscured by dust.
Many roads are fringed with vegetation, so drovers can move stock through areas with feed and water.
Bollon, on the eastern edge if the degree square, is a small town offering services to an area in which sheep and cattle grazing are prominent. Bollon is situated on Wallam Creek.
A store, hotel, heritage centre and park can be found along the wide main street.
Climate: The area has a grassland climate that is persistently dry. The Bollon climate station to the west is representative of the area.
Bollon Mary Street (site 044010) 1907-2008
There is a great degree of variability on both temperature and rainfall. The highest temperature on record was 47.0°C in January 1973 and the lowest recorded temperature was -5.5°C in June 1975. Annual rainfall has ranged from a high of 1158.7mm in 1956 to a low of 180.5mm in 1946
Extremes of Nature: Records of very large floods in the Balonne River extend back as far as 1890. Major floods occur regularly, on average every two years. These floods can result from the penetration of decaying cyclones this far inland. For example, extensive floods were experienced in the catchments of Wallam, Mungallala, Patersons and Nebine Creeks in May 1983, April 1990 and February 1997.
Cyclone tracks within 200 km of the confluence, 1906 to 2006 (Bureau of Meteorology web site)
The National Earthquake Database maintained by Geoscience Australia records two earthquakes within the degree square, both of which are within 7 km of the confluence point. The closest (about 2 km north) was a ML 3.0 event on 15 June 2006 and the second, a much smaller ML 2.5 event on 26 December 2007. No damage was reported.
The Indigenous Story: The area is the traditional lands of the Kooma people. MORE INFORMATION REQUIRED
European Exploration and Settlement: INFORMATION REQUIRED
The total population of the degree square at the 2011 national census was 2334. This total has fluctuated over the years in step with the fortunes of the grazing industry.
Edited by: Hayley Freemantle
Compilers: Jane Terrell-Payne and Les Payne with additional material from Col Grant and Ken Granger 2008.