The Royal GeographicalSociety of Queensland Ltd
Ms Nicole Garofano, PhD Candidate at the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Queensland, has received a very competitive University of Queensland Graduate School’s Candidate Development Award. The award focusses on skills which will enhance employment opportunities after the degree and supports travel costs associated with the candidate’s research. Nicole will use her award to travel to London to present a paper at the prestigious Royal Geographical Society (RGS-IBG) Annual International Conference 27-30 August 2019. Congratulations to Nicole! Her itinerary also includes meetings with sustainability consultants in Manchester and London, 2 weeks with the Asian Development Bank Pacific Division and a return visit to Barbados and St Vincent to present her research findings to fieldwork stakeholders.
Nicole’s research focusses on Managing plastics waste in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Pacific, the Caribbean and the Indian Oceans. Such states have small land area, limited human, financial and technical resources and few options to effectively manage plastics in both land and marine ecosystems. The plastic used for packaging foods and beverages is manufactured in distant and more developed economies, either as finished products (e.g. packaged rice or biscuits) or raw materials (e.g. plastic to make bags or bottles locally). Nicole is documenting a ‘Plastics System’ - the “flows of plastics” to and through geographically remote SIDS markets. In 2018, she did field work in Vanuatu, Barbados, St Vincent and the Grenadines and the Seychelles, conducting interviews, organising focus groups, packaging audits and field observation to generate flow maps of plastic materials from manufacturers to disposal or recycling.
Early findings identify opportunities for local innovative entrepreneurship for managing plastics which could generate livelihood benefits for SIDS communities. For example, on Union Island (in the St Vincent and Grenadines archipelago) a school-based collection programme for beverage containers uses the inter-island shipping service to send bottles to St Vincent for reprocessing and sale to secondary plastic markets. In Barbados, plastic beverage containers have been collected for in-country recycling into plastic roof tiles. In Vanuatu local entrepreneurs with trucks have adapted pre-paid waste collection systems, including plastics, removing material from remote villages for disposal at a regulated landfill.
Garofano, N 2019 (forthcoming), ‘Geography, islands and plastic: how documenting the flows can contribute to change’, presentation to the Royal Geographical Society RGS-IBG Annual International Conference 2019, London, 27-30 August 2019.
Garofano, N 2018, ‘Community-Based Recycling in a Small Island Developing State: A Case Study from Barbados’, paper presented to the International Solid Waste Association World Congress, Kuala Lumpur, 22-24 October 2018.
By Dr. Bishna Bajracharya
Dr Bhishna Bajracharya is an Associate Professor of Urban Planning in the Faculty of Society and Design, Bond University. He completed his PhD in Geography and Master’s in Urban Planning from the University of Hawaii and has previously worked at the Queensland University of Technology and Australian National University. His major research interests are in urban governance, master planned communities, smart cities and disaster management.
Dr. Bajracharya’s recent work, funded by the Bond University Faculty Grant, reviews the regional planning process in rapidly growing South East Queensland (SEQ) over the last twenty-five years. In the 1990s, strategic regional land-use planning was initiated in response to growing concerns about the rate of growth and the potential loss of environmental, agricultural and cultural landscapes in SEQ. A cooperative exercise between state and local governments resulted in the first “Regional Framework for Growth Management” in 1995, known as the “SEQ 2001”. In 2005 an updated regional framework became a statutory planning instrument. Periodic reviews of the plan have augmented its sophistication and detail, but the overall planning vision and spatial planning approach to contain and guide growth have remained relatively consistent.
Framed within the urban containment paradigm, the latest SEQ Regional Plan (2017) establishes specific principles and statutory planning controls to direct the spatial distribution of growth while attempting to preserve natural, cultural and productive landscapes and overall liveability. Identification of desired regional growth patterns, coordinated governance, economic and infrastructure development and Plan monitoring are key attributes of the framework. Major challenges remain for maintaining regional resilience amidst continuing growth pressures in the region. They include greater recognition and delineation of peri-urban areas, integration of regional planning and disaster management and growth management of peri-urban master-planned communities.
The State of Queensland. Shaping SEQ: South East Queensland Regional Plan (August 2017) Department of Infrastructure, Local Government and Planning, Brisbane.
Figure 1. The SEQ Urban Footprint (Source: The State of Queensland, 2017)
Bajracharya, B. and Hastings, P. (2018) A Regional, Strategic Growth-Management Approach to Urban and Peri-Urban Development in South East Queensland, Australia. Journal of Regional and City Planning, V.29 (3) pp.210-233
Thank you to all who attended the special members’ meeting on Tuesday 7 May. It was fitting that this meeting, which dealt with a new legal platform for the Society, was considered at the first general meeting of members held in the Society’s new home, Gregory Place.
Transfer of the Society to a Company Limited by Guarantee: The formal notice convening the meeting on 7th May and setting out the specific matters to be considered was distributed prior to the meeting to all members in accordance with the provisions of the current constitution. This meeting was the culmination of much effort that has been underway since the Council initiated, almost two years ago, the upgrade of the incorporation status of the Society from Letters Patent to a Company Limited by Guarantee (CLG), including adoption of a new constitution. Two previous meetings in mid-2017 and 2018 were particularly useful in obtaining members’ views on the overall proposal and on the new constitution. The meeting on 7th May passed all resolutions relating to the transfer of the Society to a CLG and the adoption of the new constitution. On behalf of the Council, I’d like to thank Roger Grimley, Lilia Darii and Chris Spriggs who have worked tirelessly to bring this process to completion and also all those members who have contributed to the deliberations on the matter.
As a CLG we retain the status of “Royal”, so our name continues to be The Royal Geographical Society of Queensland – the only change being from “Inc” to “Ltd”. We also retain our status as a not-for-profit charitable organisation. The process now is to submit various applications to implement the resolutions passed, including an application for registration to the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC). The aim is to have everything completed so that the 2019 AGM can be held under the new regime and constitution.
First lecture at Fortescue Street: Following the formal special meeting, Vice-President Dr. Peter Griggs presented a very interesting and entertaining lecture on “Taking the Waters” - mineral springs, artesian bores and health tourism. The lecture was followed and much appreciated, as usual, by delicious refreshments organised by our supper team. I hope this is the first of many successful lecture evenings at Gregory Place.
Official opening of premises: His Excellency, the Honourable Paul de Jersey AC, Governor of Queensland, has agreed to officially open our new premises on Thursday July 18th 5.00-6.00PM. We are now making arrangements for this important event and drawing up a guest list to include some local dignitaries. More information on this will be forwarded to members later.
Map library: Thanks go to Doreen Worth and Ralph Carlisle who have volunteered to work with Peter Nunan in sorting and cataloguing our collection in the Map Library. Your assistance is much appreciated.
I look forward to welcoming more members to Gregory Place in the near future.
Dr. Iraphne Childs, President
Dr Peter Griggs
Recently, Tracey and I were fortunate enough to spend some time in Israel. We started our trip in Jerusalem, being present in the city over a Friday and Saturday. These two days coincided with Shabbat or the Sabbath which is Judaism’s day of rest. Businesses, government offices, museums, art galleries and libraries start to close soon after noon on Friday. By the time a siren rings out at dusk announcing the start of Shabbat, much of the city had shut down. It is an eerie feeling when a city falls very quiet, as the traffic dwindles and most of its citizens head indoors for festive meals.
We were staying in accommodation in West Jerusalem, so we decided to go for a walk to see what shops etc. had remained open. Other people who we presumed to be tourists must have had the same idea as we were not alone. We encountered a few open pizzerias and restaurants, and a Filipino grocery store and restaurant which was being well patronised by Filipinos. The presence of so many Filipinos was puzzling and the next day we asked our guide for an explanation. He explained that Israel has an ageing population* and difficulty attracting workers to the aged care sector. Filipinos can enter Israel on five-year work permits, and now make up a considerable portion of the aged care sector in the country.
Jerusalem has a population of approximately 800,000. The city sprawls across several hills which form part of the Judean Mountains, an elevated plateau which runs through the centre of Israel. The hills of Jerusalem are bisected by the Kidron Brook, a non-permanent watercourse that is prone to sudden flooding after rain.
Fig 1. Map showing the three parts of Jerusalem. Source: https://www.city-journal.org/html/between-green-line-and-blue-line-13397.html
Jerusalem has a complicated internal geography (Fig 1). East Jerusalem is quite hilly and populated by approximately 260,000 Palestinian Arabs. Many live in three to six storey apartments (see Figure 2). Until the Six-Day War or Third Arab-Israeli War (5-10 June 1967), this territory was part of Jordan. Jewish areas, however, have been established in East Jerusalem and it is estimated that approximately 200,000 Jews now live in East Jerusalem.
West Jerusalem is not as hilly and is that part of the city created mostly after Israel became a separate country in 1948. Israeli Government Ministries, the Israeli Parliament, and the Israeli National Museum and Art Gallery are located in this part of the city. The third section is the Old City, which was first established c. 1500 BCE, destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE and then later rebuilt during the second and third century CE. Today, it is an area of narrow, winding streets (see Figure 3) and is still surrounded by walls (see Figure 4). The Old City is entered via various gates in the walls (e.g. Damascus; Jaffa; Zion), including one whose name conjures up past city functions (see Figure 5).
Fig 2. A view of East Jerusalem from the Old City, January 2019. Source: Peter Griggs
Fig 3. Some of the narrow streets in the Jewish Quarter, Old City, Jerusalem. Source: Peter Griggs
Most of our time was spent exploring the Old City, which is split into the Armenian, Jewish, Muslim and Christian Quarters. Access to the Muslim Quarter is regulated so we did not visit that part of the Old City where Temple Mount and the Dome of the Rock are situated (can be seen from a distance, however). The other main sites that can be visited include the Western Wall, Herodian mansion ruins, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, King David’s Tomb (reputedly), Via Dolorosa and various Christian churches.
Fig 4. A view of the Old City of Jerusalem taken from Mount of Olives. The Dome of the Rock, Islam’s third holiest site, is featured in the centre of the image. Source: Peter Griggs
Fig 5. One of Jerusalem’s Old City’s gates. The Dung Gate allows entrance into the Jewish Quarter. Source: Peter Griggs.
We were reminded that Jerusalem has had a violent recent past (and ancient past) when our guide showed as two features. The first was the bullet holes made in the city’s walls by the fighting between the Israeli and Jordanian troops in 1967. The second was the site where archaeological excavations have revealed an almost metre thick layer of ash which the archaeologists have concluded was created after the Romans destroyed Jerusalem in 70 CE.
For a very readable account of Jerusalem’s complicated history, I would recommend Simon Montefiore’s Jerusalem. The Biography (London: Phoenix, 2011).
* In 2018, 11.6% of Israel’s population was aged over 65 years of age (Source: CIA World Factbook).
By Todd McNeill
Growing up I have always had a fascination about Earth and the planets in our solar system which resulted in many questions relating to their origins and the mechanisms which shaped them. For many of my teenage years, geographical, geological and space documentaries, aided by Google fuelled my desire to learn more about Earth and the planets that made up our solar system. However, I reached a point where my education became a bottleneck limiting me from understanding the greater complexities of planetary systems. As result this led me to pursue a degree and future career in physical geography (geomorphology).
Geomorphology aims to understand the relationship between landforms and the biological, chemical and physical mechanisms that currently and have historically shaped them. For me Summerfield (1991) best describes geomorphology as, ‘...the science concerned with the form of the landsurface and the processes which create it’.
The geomorphology disciplinehas been further extended into areas such as landscapes of planetary bodies within the solar system and also the study of submarine features (Summerfield, 1991).
Why pursue a degree and career in physical geography?
One of the many benefits of geomorphology is that the discipline’s philosophies are carried over many environments, whether that is aeolian, catchment, coastal, glacial or my personal favourite coral reef geomorphology. As a result, my current time studying geomorphology has allowed for me to adventure out and experience many of the magnificent landscapes the world has to offer, including fringing reefs of Middle Island, Tully Gorge and the Atherton Tablelands to name a few.
The science of geomorphology is also surrounded by many aspects from other allied disciplines, such as geochemistry, hydrology, and climatology to name a few. Pursuing a degree and career in physical geography will provide one with the critical thinking required to piece together the processes that have moulded the landscape in the past and continue to shape it today.
Studying physical geography also provides advancements in one’s technical skill set in areas such as interpreting satellite data through remote sensing, developing maps and models through geographic information systems (GIS) and plotting models and data using programming languages such as R.
Economic outlookLooking at a career in geomorphology from an economic point of view, according to Australian Governments Job Outlook, geomorphologists looking to work in the environmental science sectors are forecast to see strong job growth over the next 5 years. Other social professionals (geographers) are also forecast to see moderate future growth over the next 5 years.
ConclusionNow is a very exciting time to pursue a degree and career in geomorphology. Whether your interest is in a particular environmental setting or just a desire to better understand the landforms surrounding you,I am sure geomorphology will be a very rewarding career.
ReferenceDepartment of Jobs and Small Business 2019, Environmental Scientists, Australian Government, viewed 06 April 2019, https://joboutlook.gov.au/Occupation.aspx?search=alpha&code=2343
Department of Jobs and Small Business 2019, Social Professionals, Australian Government, viewed 06 April 2019, https://joboutlook.gov.au/Occupation.aspx?search=Career&code=2724
This year, The Royal Geographical Society of Queensland prize for the highest achieving student in the geography major at the University of the Sunshine Coast was a tie, and the joint winners are Caleb Mattiske and Kent Olive. Both achieved a perfect grade point average of 7.0 out of a possible 7.0. Caleb is now working in the Northern Territory and Kent has enrolled for his Honours research year.
The same award at James Cook University, Townsville was presented to Todd McNeill. Todd has contributed a News article on why one should pursue a career in geography.
Internal Migration in China
Dr Aude Bernard
Dr Aude Bernard is a Population Geographer/Demographer, an ARC DECRA fellow in the Queensland Centre for Population Research, within the School of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Queensland. Her research interests are in human mobility and migration.
Dr. Bernard works closely with the Asian Demographic Research Institute (ADRI) to advance understanding of migration behaviour in Asia and its socio-demographic impact on societies. One of the countries that Dr. Bernard has been researching is China using a cohort perspective to analyse migration levels, patterns and reasons for moving in China for cohorts born between 1935 and 1974. She applies this approach to migration histories retrospectively collected as part of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2014. She is also developing migration projections to provide insights into how migration levels are likely to evolve in the coming decades in China. Her research shows modest but rising levels of migration underpinned by a reduction in lifetime immobility and a rise in repeat movement, largely caused by an upswing in employment-related migration. Significant sex differentials are demonstrated that have persisted across successive cohorts.
Dr. Bernard has recently completed work for UNESCO to establish the association between internal migration and education attainment in countries at various stages of development. In 2016, she was awarded an ARC Discovery Early Career Researcher Award (DECRA) to examine the long-term decline of internal migration rates in advanced economies. This project aims to establish the onset and pace of migration decline and identify the socio-economic causes of this profound shift in human mobility.
Bernard, A 2017, 'Cohort Measures of Internal Migration: Understanding Long-Term Trends', Demography, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 2201-21.
Bernard A., Bell, M, and Zhu Y. (2019) Migration in China: A cohort approach to understanding past and future trends, Population, Space and Place, 2019-e2234. https://doi.org/10.1002/psp.2234
Open Day: On Tuesday, 9th April we welcomed around 40 members and visitors to RGSQ’s new home - Gregory Place for our “Open Day”. Many commented that it definitely looked like a Geographical Society! Members also remarked that a key benefit of the new premises was the easy access which the “open plan” now allowed to browse the library and map collections. To do so had, previously, been somewhat difficult at Milton as these resources were located in a separate room from the auditorium and were rarely used by members.
I would like to thank Bob Abnett and Ian Francis for leading a team of volunteers (John Fairbairn, Jim Graham, Roger Grimley, John Ladbrook, Neville McManimm, Peter Nunan, Graham and Kay Rees, Bob Reid, Mary Comer, Ralph Carlisle) who worked to complete the fit-out of the new premises, and preparing and catering for the Open Day/Evening.
And so, this completes our move … We now hope to see members coming along to enjoy Gregory Place, browse our library and map collections, attend the regular monthly lectures, meetings of special interest groups or just to drop in any time they are in the vicinity.
Changes to office staffing: Recognising the Society’s expanding range of activities and obligations, in late 2018 Council resolved to address a critical need to review and restructure RGSQ office employed positions. Over the past few months, in consultation with our existing staff, we have been engaged in clarifying and redefining office roles. We believe the changes will assist staff in their work and enable us to pursue more effectively the Society’s wider goals in promoting Geography. The changes which have been introduced are:
I would like to thank Bernard, Lilia and Rosie for their cooperation and assistance during this process of change. The next few months will be a period of transition during which responsibilities are re-aligned. Members please note:
Please support our staff in their new roles and thank you for your recognition of these changes.
I look forward to seeing you at RGSQ Gregory Place.
The Australian Geography Competition mailout was completed during the week of 12-15 March. Special thanks to Lilia Darii, Kath Berg, John and Mary Nowill for taking on extra responsibilities with this mailout and to members: Ian Francis, Roger Grimley, Neville McManimm, Mary Comer, Kay and Graham Rees, Bob Reed, Catherine Martin, John and Doreen Wilkinson for their help and other RGSQ members for their offer of assistance.
I am happy to report that the fit-out work at our new premises in Fortescue Street, Spring Hill is now complete. Staff and volunteers have been working tirelessly throughout this process to keep RGSQ activities going. I would especially like to thank Bob Abnett and his Gregory House Committee, (Paul Broad, Ian Francis, Chris Spriggs and Bernard Fitzpatrick), for their excellent work in designing, organising and supervising the fit-out, and for many member volunteers who have given their time and effort in setting up our new space. It’s a pleasure to now be able to invite members to visit our new home on Open day on April 9th.
RGSQ's new home - Gregory House, 1/28 Fortescue St, Spring Hill
[photo: I Childs]
Spring Hill is one of Brisbane’s oldest suburbs, with many houses dating from the nineteenth century. Spring Hill was so named because the hill on which the suburb was built was the source of the creek that was Brisbane's first fresh water supply. Boundary Street was named due to the racist policy of separating Europeans from the Jagera and Turrbal peoples whose territories originally extended from Moreton Bay to Toowoomba, including Brisbane and Ipswich. Aboriginal people were exiled beyond the boundary lines after 4pm, six days a week and completely on Sundays. Police troopers rode the perimeter cracking stock-whips and rigidly enforced the curfew.
Following land subdivisions in the 1870s, the lower Spring Hill slopes became increasingly overcrowded. By the time of the Great Depression in 1929, Spring Hill had become renowned for its seedy cheap rents, crowded boarding houses, high levels of unemployment, brothels and criminals which all helped to give Spring Hill a bad reputation that continued until the 1950s. In the 1960s some parts of Spring Hill began to attract young professionals who were drawn to the character of the area. This heralded an era of gentrification with many of the small timber and tin “workers” cottages and grand historic buildings along Wickham Terrace beautifully restored. Today, Spring Hill is one of Brisbane’s most sought-after places to live. Fortescue Street is representative of these changes.
The Lady in Blue, 122 Fortescue Street
This is the former site of the Presbyterian Mission Hall. Deaconess May Walker gave forty years of her life looking after the poor and needy in Spring Hill, becoming known as the ‘Blue Angel’. She sought to alleviate the poverty and hardship she saw in Spring Hill, particularly women and children. In the 1920s, St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church constructed a mission hall on the corner of Fortescue and Wedd streets to assist with her endeavours. The hall became a community centre where those in need could go and be given food, clothing and nursing also. Now the site is residential units.
Claydon House, 149 Fortescue St
[Photo: R Carlisle]
This building was constructed in 1879 by Irish bricklayer, William Jackson. Upon completion of the building, Jackson ran the unlicensed “Spring Hill Tavern” from the premises. Popular legend has it that it was so noisy and disreputable that a public petition demanded its closure in 1888.
The building was converted to a local store in the early 1900s. Renovations over the years have maintained its external heritage significance. The building is now a legal practice.
The row of five cottages called ‘Park Terrace’ was built between 1889 and 1890 by local engineer James Anderson as investment properties. Fortescue Street was then a well-established suburban street. Targeted at a professional clientele, the rents for each cottage may have been higher than other houses in Fortescue Street. e.g. in 1890, the cottages were home to an engineer, an architect, the secretary of the Queensland Club and a Madame Boucherville (profession unknown). By 1910, the tenants renting the cottages had changed to artisan and working class people including a shop assistant, tailoress, prison guard and a missionary. Park Terrace had fallen into disrepair by the 1970s and Spring Hill’s character and proximity to the city was increasingly valued. By 1988, all five cottages had been restored and they are still there today.
Early Settler Recollections of Bygone Brisbane, http://www.brisbanehistory.com/HAP_recollect.html
Saunter through Spring Hill. Brisbane Heritage Trails. Brisbane City Council https://www.brisbane.qld.gov.au/sites/default/files/20150604_-_saunter_through_spring_hill.pdf
|Brisbane could rename historically racist Boundary streets, Brisbane times January 30, 2016
Dr Iraphne Childs, RGSQ President
Wild Apricot for Members is a free App for IOS (Apple) or Android phones that is very convenient for managing your RGSQ events. You can book and pay for events as well as checking your bookings. With a finger click you can ensure that all your bookings go into your calendar as a reminder, just in case you forget. How easy is that?
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The Royal Geographical Society of Queensland Ltd.Level 1/28 Fortescue St, Spring Hill QLD firstname.lastname@example.org | +61 7 3368 2066ABN 87 014 673 068 | ACN 636 005 068
Her Excellency the Honourable Dr Jeannette Young PSM, Governor of Queensland